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Metal Machining Handbook

Metal Machining Handbook

Theory and Applications

Metal Machining Handbook

Theory and Applications

Metal Machining

Preface
Improved manufacturing productivity, over the last 50 years, has occurred in the area of machining through developments in the machining process, in machine tool technology and in manufacturing management. The subject of this book is the machining process itself, but placed in the wider context of manufacturing productivity. It is mainly concerned with how mechanical and materials engineering science can be applied to understand the process better and to support future improvements
There have been other books in the English language that share these aims, from a variety of viewpoints. Metal Cutting Principles by M. C. Shaw (1984, Oxford: Clarendon Press) is closest in spirit to the mechanical engineering focus of the present work, but there have been many developments since that was first published. Metal Cutting by E. M. Trent  (3rd edn, 1991, Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann) is another major work, but written more from the point of view of a materials engineer than the current book’s perspective.  Fundamentals of Machining and Machine Tools by G. Boothroyd and W. A. Knight (2nd  edn, 1989, New York: Marcel Dekker) covers mechanical and production engineering perspectives at a similar level to this book. There is a book in Japanese, Modern Machining Theory by E. Usui (1990, Tokyo: Kyoritu-shuppan), that overlaps some parts of this volume. However, if this book, Metal Machining, can bear comparison with any of these,  the present authors will be satisfied
There are also more general introductory texts, such as Manufacturing Technology and Engineering by S. Kalpakjian (3rd edn, 1995, New York: Addison-Wesley) and Introduction to Manufacturing Processes by J. A. Schey (2nd edn, 1987, New York:  McGraw-Hill) and narrower more specialist ones such as Mechanics of Machining by P L. B. Oxley (1989, Chichester: Ellis Horwood) which this text might be regarded as complementing
It is intended that this book will be of interest and helpful to all mechanical, manufacturing and materials engineers whose responsibilities include metal machining matters. It is, however, written specifically for masters course students. Masters courses are a major feature of both the American and Japanese University systems, preparing the more able twenty year olds in those countries for the transition from foundation undergraduate courses to useful professional careers. In the UK, masters courses have not in the past been
popular, but changes from an elite to a mass higher education system are resulting in an increasingly important role for taught advanced level and continuing professional development courses
It is supposed that masters course readers will have encountered basic mechanical and materials principles before, but will not have had much experience of their application. A feature of the book is that many of these principles are revised and placed in the machining context, to relate the material to earlier understanding. Appendices are heavily used to meet this objective without interrupting the flow of material too much
It is a belief of the authors that texts should be informative in practical as well as theoretical detail. We hope that a reader who wants to know how much power will be needed to turn a common engineering alloy, or what cutting speed might be used, or what material properties might be appropriate for carrying out some reader-specific simulation, will have a reasonable chance either of finding the information in these pages or of finding a helpful reference for further searching
The book is essentially organized in two parts. Chapters 1 to 5 cover basic material. Chapters 6 to 9 are more advanced. Chapter 1 is an introduction that places the process in its broader context of machine tool technology and manufacturing systems management. Chapter 2 covers the basic mechanical engineering of machining: mechanics, heat conduction and tribology (friction, lubrication and wear). Chapters 3 and 4 focus on materials’ performance in machining, Chapter 5 describes experimental methods used in machining studies
The core of the second part is numerical modelling of the machining process. Chapter 6 deals with mechanics developments up to the introduction of, and Chapters 7 and 8 with the development and application of, finite element methods in machining analysis. Chapter 9 is concerned with embedding process understanding into process control and optimization tools
No book is written without external influences. We thank the following for their advice and help throughout our careers: in the UK, Professors D. Tabor, K. L. Johnson, P. B. Mellor and G . W. Rowe (the last two, sadly, deceased); in Japan, Professors E. Usui, T. Shirakashi and N. Narutaki; and Professor S. Ramalingam in the USA. More closely connected with this book, we also especially acknowledge many discussions with, and much experimental information given by, Professor T. Kitagawa of Kitami Institute of Technology, who might almost have been a co-author.We also thank the companies Yasda Precision Tools KK, Okuma Corporation and Toyo Advanced Technologies for allowing the use of original photographs in Chapter 1, British Aerospace Airbus for providing the cover photograph, Mr G. Dean (Leeds University) for drafting many of the original line drawings and Mr K. Sekiya (Hiroshima University) for creating some of the figures in Chapter 4. One of us (it is obvious which one) thanks the British Council and Monbusho for enabling him to spend a 3 month period in Japan during the Summer of 1999: this, with the purchase of a laptop PC with money awarded by the Jacob Wallenberg Foundation (Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Science), resulted in the final manuscript being less late than it otherwise would have been
We must thank the publisher for allowing several deadlines to pass and our wives – Wendy, Yoko, Hiromi and Fukiko – and families for accepting the many working weekends that were needed to complete this book

Thomas Childs, Katsuhiro Maekawa, Toshiyuki Obikawa, and Yasuo Yamane
England and Japan
September, 1999

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